Creation, Adam & Eve, & The Book of Genesis

Creation, Adam & Eve, & The Book of Genesis

Every so often there is a scientific study that appears attempting to explain the origin of mankind. One such study that has emerged seems to agree with the biblical worldview.  Dr. Michael Guillen, the president of the organization Spectacular Science Productions in an article titled, “Did A Mysterious Extinction Event Precede Adam and Eve?” mentioned two researchers who have theorized that all of mankind had derived from a common mother and father. In addition, they also conclude that all animals in creation also came from common types of creatures.  These researchers, observing big data from genetic databases saw what they called genetic “barcodes” from over 5 million types of species looking at what they call the mitochondria DNA, which is passed down from the mother. According to Dr. Guillen as the animals and human beings reproduced they passed these genetic “errors” in the mitochondrial DNA. These researchers measured the errors in between the animals, and as a result, they were able to suggest a time period. 

 Dr. Guillen article affirmed several points that are highlighted in Scripture. First, the researchers stated that these markers that are found in animals came from common types of creatures. This truth is underscored in chapter one of the Book of Genesis as it details the creation of the animals by God (Gen. 1:20-25). In addition, the Scripture also stated that animals would be brought forth after their kind (this word in Hebrew is miyn (מִין) (pronounced min) and refers to a creature that has the same form and structure. This particular word in Genesis chapter one concerning the animals described is used 7 times in verses 21-25). This is something that Dr. Guillen astutely notes in his article:

…the DNA bar codes reveal that species are quantized. Instead of there being a continuum of animal varieties, as one might expect from millions of years of gradual evolution, creatures fall into very distinct, widely separated populations – what the Bible describes as “kinds,” from the Hebrew word min.

Did a mysterious extinction event precede Adam and Eve?https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/did-a-mysterious-extinction-event-precede-adam and-eve?fbclid=IwAR09k3etiqBhlscB0Rcm1UVBrcCaUVdN_CRAY8PXDDsijyVmL5dWCPil9LA

The second point Dr. Gullien notes is that humankind comes from one common mother and father. This truth is also highlighted in Scripture as outlined in the Book of Genesis:

26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”

Gen. 1:26-28 NASB emphasis mine

Furthermore, the way that male and female is created by God is described in Genesis 2:14ff. This is something that the study seems to affirm due to the observations in the mitochondrial DNA made by the researchers. However, although the researchers mentioned man and woman come from a common ancestor the researchers due to their macroevolutionary perspective make assumptions about how long mankind has been on the earth, which is noted below

In one of the most provocative and misunderstood studies of the year, scientists in the U.S. and Switzerland have made an astonishing discovery: All humans alive today are the offspring of a common father and mother – an Adam and Eve – who walked the planet 100,000 to 200,000 years ago, which by evolutionary standards is like yesterday. 

Did a mysterious extinction event precede Adam and Eve? https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/did-a-mysterious-extinction-event-precede-adam and-eve?fbclid=IwAR09k3etiqBhlscB0Rcm1UVBrcCaUVdN_CRAY8PXDDsijyVmL5dWCPil9LA

This perspective runs against the biblical worldview. The earth itself, according to the Scripture is roughly about 6,000 years old (this age of the earth is determined by taking the ages of the human genealogies, starting with Adam who was the first man mentioned in the Bible and simply adding them together). By contrast, the macroevolutionary perspective instructs that changes in creatures develop gradually over a long period of time (roughly millions of years). Dr. Guillen also notes this is his article

…according to evolutionary biologists, species developed gradually over many millions of years. Stoeckle and Thaler’s discovery is that something happened roughly 100,000 years ago that created entirely new populations from long-existing species.

Did a mysterious extinction event precede Adam and Eve? https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/did-a-mysterious-extinction-event-precede-adam and-eve?fbclid=IwAR09k3etiqBhlscB0Rcm1UVBrcCaUVdN_CRAY8PXDDsijyVmL5dWCPil9LA

The second point that contends against Scripture is the timing of what Dr. Guillen refers to as a cataclysmic event that occurred, which caused all life to “renew” at about the same time, in a short time in history. Due to the researcher’s macroevolutionary perspectives, they mention hypotheses such as greater animal predators, changes in the environment such an ice age, and fighting with other creatures for scarce resources (i.e., survival of the fittest). Dr. Guillen offers some theories of his own such as a giant meteor that crashed onto the planet, or an “a built-in evolutionary process that when the population gets too big, it crashes and must start itself from scratch” (Guillen, 2018). His basic conclusion leads to the following statement in his article:

What caused animal life on Earth to be almost completely renewed such a short time ago? For now, it remains a mystery.

Did a mysterious extinction event precede Adam and Eve? https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/did-a-mysterious-extinction-event-precede-adam and-eve?fbclid=IwAR09k3etiqBhlscB0Rcm1UVBrcCaUVdN_CRAY8PXDDsijyVmL5dWCPil9LA

However, this mystery is solved by observing sacred Scripture. Dr. Guillen and the researchers are correct about one aspect of the historical narrative: there was a cataclysmic event that did occur on the earth, the problem is the timing of the event. The event did not happen before Adam and Eve, as the title of his article suggests, and the event was not due to a huge meteor, nor scarce resources, but due to a global worldwide flood (Gen. 6:13-19, chaps. 7-8:1-14).

The flood took place due to the wickedness of men that was multiplied on the face of the earth, as a result of sin caused by Adam and Eve’s actions in the Garden of Eden (c.f., Gen. 3:1-19; Gen. 6:6). After the waters of the flood subsided, God told Noah to bring out all of the animals that were in the ark so that they could produce throughout the earth (Gen. 8:15-19). At the same time, God had told Noah and his family told them also populate the earth, continuing the line of mankind from Adam and Eve (Gen. 9:1-7).

This account the sacred Scripture gives satisfies two points from the above article: It answers the mystery of the catastrophic event that caused the “reset” of all creation, and it satisfies that reason that most of the animals gave birth at around the same time in history. It was not due to a pre-Adamite destructive event, but the global flood that caused all life (with the exception of Noah, his families, and the animals in the ark) to perish. Again due to the researcher’s (and somewhat of the author of the article above) perspective they promote that creation itself is millions of years old, and this affects how they observe the origin and destruction of creation.  

The discovery of the mitochondrial DNA highlighted the biblical truth that creation bears forth after its kind, and not from gradual changes in the taxonomy of creatures over an extensive period of time. In addition, the research underscores a destructive event that occurred in history, but this event did not happen before Adam and Eve but after Adam and Eve, due to the wickedness of man. God destroyed the creation in a global flood, and when the flood waters receded the animals were released from the ark to breed and populate the earth (along with mankind who was also to populate and fill the earth).

Despite the great study, when examining this from a biblical worldview some of the researchers (and the author’s) conclusions they come to run against what God has revealed regarding the origin and progression of human history. God who has disclosed this to man by His word gives us assurance that God has not subjected mankind to random acts of destruction by mysterious forces mankind is ignorant of, but human beings are all under the sovereign hand of God, and His will, found in His sacred word.

 

Until next time…

Soli Deo Gloria!

Dr. L.S.

 

 

Advertisements

Thanksgiving, Squanto, and the Providence of God

Thanksgiving, Squanto, and the Providence of God

Once again it is the time of year known as Thanksgiving. The time where family and friends gather around food (and football) giving thanks for all of the things that have happened over the course of the year and how God has provided. This activity underscores one attribute of God that is seldom discussed and this is the attribute is known as Providence. This word, when used of God, describes Him as the divine Caretaker who works for the benefit of the creation (c.f., Ps. 145:15-16; Matt. 6:25-34). The ultimate act of Providence God has shown in the sending of His Son to be the Savior of the world (which is associated with a particular holiday after Thanksgiving) however in the event of Thanksgiving Day there is an example of God’s divine Providence to the pilgrims observed in the life of a man named Squanto.

Squanto (whose name may have formerly been Tisquantum) was a Native American of the Patuxet tribe that was located in what is now known as Plymouth Massachusetts. In the year 1605 Squanto was captured as a young boy and carried off into slavery in Europe, and it was at this time Squanto learned the English language. After about nine years Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a military colonist from England, had sent the Native Americans that were in slavery back to New England. However, in the year 1614, Squanto, along with other Native Americans, was captured by Captain Thomas Hunt, a lieutenant under the authority of John Smith (who founded the first English settlement called Jamestown in North America) and brought them back to Europe to be sold as slaves.

After several years Squanto managed to escape from slavery and returned to his native homeland to find most of his tribe was wiped out due to a plague. Over the course of time, Squanto reunited with Sir Ferdinando Gorges once more, and sent Squanto as an interpreter, along with a man named Captain Thomas Dermer up the Northeastern coast to trade with local Native American tribes. One such tribe was the Wampanoags who were very suspicions of Squanto due to his relationship with Captian Thomas Dermer. As a result of their suspicions, they turned Squanto into their leader named Massasoit, where he remained a prisoner of the Wampanoag tribe. 

Corresponding with these events a tribe member by the name of Samoset, who spoke poor English, became friends of the pilgrims who had learned about the deaths and famine the pilgrims suffered due to a harsh winter. Samoset seeing their plight had introduced the pilgrims to Massasoit. In March of 1621 after Squanto’s imprisonment, the Wampanoags used Squanto’s English skills to communicate with the small colony of pilgrims the Wampanoags were watching that winter. It was then the pilgrims made a pact with the tribe that they would help the pilgrims survive if they did not kill the Wampanoag tribe that assisted them. After this agreement, Squanto was released from being a prisoner and was used as a guide and an interpreter to the pilgrims.

With the assistance of Squanto, the pilgrims were able to grow crops so that they would help them survive the following winter. In the Fall of 1621, the first Thanksgiving feast was given, which Squanto and ninety Massasoit Native Americans were in attendance. This particular feast lasted three full days and it was to celebrate the successful Fall harvest for the pilgrims.

In the brief historical account, there are several things to observe in Squanto’s life: The sinful actions of man, taking him several times as a slave and imprisonment. However, throughout Squanto’s life we also observe the Providence of God in how he was trained in the English language and became a close friend to a neighboring Native American tribe and the Europeans. These events equipped Squanto to assist and serve the pilgrims in their time of need.

William Bradford had this to say about Squanto working with the pilgrims:

After these thing he returned to his place called Sowams, some 40 miles from
this place, but Squanto continued with them and was their interpreter and was a special instrument sent of God for their good beyond their expectation. He directed them how to set their corn, where to take fish, and to procure other commodities, and was also their pilot to bring them to unknown places for their profit, and never left them till he died.

“Excerpts from William Bradford’s Journal.” Retrieved from https://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/terri%20delebo/ALLHONORS10/William_Bradford-OF_PLYMOUTH_PLANTATIONL.pdf. emphasis mine.

Another example of God’s Providence can be found in the sacred Scriptures with the life of Joseph. Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers (Gen. 37:18-36). Joseph had great success in Egypt, however, he was falsely accused and thrown in prison (Gen. 39:1-23). While Joseph was in jail he had amassed authority in prison yet he was quickly forgotten about by one of the prisoner he assisted in saving his life (Gen. 40:1-21). It was during these series of circumstances the Lord, who was with Joseph the entire time through his sufferings, became the second in command to Pharoah and was in the position to save the entire known world from a devasting famine, which also included the brothers that betrayed him (Gen. chaps 41-45). When recounting his brother’s betrayal to them Joseph said the following:

5 “Now do not be grieved or angry with yourselves, because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life. 6 “For the famine has been in the land these two years, and there are still five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvesting. 7 “God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant in the earth, and to keep you alive by a great deliverance . 8 “Now, therefore, it was not you who sent me here, but God; and He has made me a father to Pharaoh and lord of all his household and ruler over all the land of Egypt.

Genesis 45:5-8 NASB

Squanto, much like Joseph was sold into slavery and treated harshly. Squanto, similar to Joseph enslaved in a distant land having to learn a completely different culture. Squanto similar to Joseph was enslaved by people who he assisted. Squanto became influential to the tribes and the Europeans much like Joseph. Lastly, Squanto was used of God, like Joseph, to save people from perishing. Both Joseph and Squanto were examples of God’s divine providence and care for His creation. 

As we gather together around the turkey and trimmings this Thanksgiving Day let us be thankful for God’s Providence that provides us with the food that we will all partake on this specific day. In addition, let us as believers be thankful of the attributes God possesses in Himself, which He uses to benefit and care for His creation, for His glory.  Amen.

Happy Thanksgiving!

Until next time…

Soli Deo Gloria!

Dr. L.S.

To read more articles by Dr. Luther Smith go to his website at www.drluthersmith.com

Hebrews 6:4: A Brief Exposition

Hebrews 6:4: A Brief Exposition

There are many verses in Sacred Scripture that bring various perspectives about the life and position of the believer. One such verse is Hebrews 6:4-6, which states the following:

For in the case of those who have once been enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift and have been made partakers of the Holy Spirit, 5 and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come, 6 and then have fallen away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance, since they again crucify to themselves the Son of God and put Him to open shame (NASB).

There are those who make the case that if one who claims they are saved, and they who have fallen away were not really Christian. One such podcast, making a connection with the Book of Hebrews and connecting it with the Lord’s Supper mentions that the verbs (i.e., actions) of those who the author of Hebrews has addressed are in this past tense stating that “they tasted, but they did not eat.” The author then completes his thought by expressing the following statement

“…So church members who forsake the ministry of the word and the sacrament really fall away from something important, the gracious operations of the Holy Spirit united to these means. So, dangerous thing.”

Michael Horton (2018). Does Hebrews 6:4 Teach We Can Lose Our Salvation? Core Christianity. Retrieved from https://corechristianity.com/resource-library/episodes/losing-your-salvation-in-hebrews-6

In the notes concerning the show he also writes the following paragraph:

There is a difference between tasting and eating. When we come to worship and we hear Christ Himself say, “Come to me all you who are weary and heavy laden, I will give you rest,”when we’re baptized, when we come to the Lord’s Supper, Paul says “This bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? This cup that we bless is it not a participation in the blood of Christ?” And so, [the question is], are you really participating by faith? Are you really receiving Christ with all of his benefits? Or are you just receiving the means, going through the motions but rejecting the reality offered to you? The real thing that should be encouraging to people is [Hebrews chapter 6] verse 9, “Though we speak in this way yet in your case, beloved, we feel sure of better things, things that belong to salvation.”

Michael Horton (2018). Does Hebrews 6:4 Teach We Can Lose Our Salvation? Core Christianity. Retrieved from https://corechristianity.com/resource-library/episodes/losing-your-salvation-in-hebrews-6

In the general context of Hebrews the author, in the last part of chapter five, has just given the Jewish believers an admonishment stating that they ought to be teachers, but because they are “dull of hearing” they need a recap of the doctrines they were taught previously (Heb. 5:11-12). The author then explains they need milk, like an infant because they are still not accustomed to solid food (v. 13). The author then tells them what the solid food is, that they would have their senses constantly trained to discern truth from error (v. 14). It is on the heels of this thought that chapter six begins.

The author at the beginning of chapter six stated the Jewish believers needed to press on to maturity, not laying a foundation of repentance from dead works to serve a living God (the audience the author was addressing was already standing on this foundation of repentance) (Heb. 6:1). He then mentions some of the doctrines they discussed: The washings (more likely the washings refer to identification: being sanctified  by Christ and His Holy Spirit; c.f. 1 Cor. 6:7; Tit. 3:5), laying on of hands (perhaps an ability to manifest the Holy Spirit for the common good that came by this practice (c.f., 1 Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6)), the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment (eschatological teaching) (v. 4). The author then expressed that they would continue to teach these things as God permitted them to do so (v. 5). 

Then the author of Hebrews then began to lay out an argument by telling the Jewish believers it is impossible (lit. “not possible”) to have been illumined by the truth of God’s word, namely the gospel of Jesus Christ,  have been indwelt with the Holy Spirit and made alive in Christ (i.e., the powers of the age to come) and fall away to renew them again to repentance (due to the fact they believed the message of the Messiah and His work for them) when they crucify themselves to the Son of God putting Him to open shame. The author then gives an example found in the culture with farming. When rain falls on soil that is tilled and cultivated, it brings forth vegetation that is useful to all, and this results in a blessing from God (v. 7). By contrast, the author brings up if the ground produces weeds and things that are not beneficial then they will be cut down and burned (v. 8).

The intent of the author of Hebrews is not making a case for saints forsaking the ministry of  Lord’s Supper in this text (matter of fact the term “Lord’s Supper” is not even mentioned here). He is making the case for effective works among God’s saints. The author of Hebrews is telling them to leave the elementary teachings of Christ and press on to maturity (this word in Greek is τελειότης (teleiotes), and this is associated with being full grown or complete). In addition, the author of Hebrews affirmed they are saved from God’s wrath. They know the elementary doctrines of Scripture, and now the deeds they were to do were to be fueled by the doctrines they were assured. The Jewish believers were to be effective in their serving others, and in the end, this would result in a reward from God at the proper time. However, those who are believers who do not labor well, end up giving a “black eye” to the message of the gospel, their works become ineffective to all who are around and ultimately will result in loss of rewards from God.

This point the author of Hebrews is making is underscored in the proceeding verses noted below:

9 But, beloved, we are convinced of better things concerning you, and things that accompany salvation, though we are speaking in this way. 10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love which you have shown toward His name, in having ministered and in still ministering to the saints. 11 And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence so as to realize the full assurance of hope until the end, 12 so that you will not be sluggish, but imitators of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises (Heb. 6:9-12 NASB emphasis mine).

The author of Hebrews says to the “beloved” (this word is only used for believers) concerning them and the things that accompany (or belong to) salvation that God will not forget their work as they have ministered to His saints. The author then expressed his desire: That they continue to be diligent due to the realization of their assurance, and not to be sluggish (the Greek word is νωθρός (nothros), which in this context lit. means “lazy”), not to fall away and thus be ineffective to the service of the Lord, but to imitate those saints who labored knowing they were destined to inherit these promises God made to them.

These verses, in context, are not discussing how a believer can lose their salvation nor is the author discussing dangerous territory if a believers do not take the Lord’s Supper (in fact from the text the author of Hebrews, in context, is making a case against this, nor is this verse discussing the consequence of denying the Lord’s Supper, which is not mentioned). This passage is meant to be an encouragement to the Jewish believers to continue to be effective in their labor for the Lord, not to slack, but to be diligent. In this work, the one who labors well honors the word of God and will be rewarded by God in the future.

Let us take the wisdom of God through the author of Hebrews to heart. Let us be effective for Him. In this, we serve our brothers and sisters in the faith and ultimately be rewarded for our service, for His glory. Amen.

Until next time…

Soli Deo Gloria!

Dr. L.S.